Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Reserve
BOLGAR. THE HISTORY IS NEARBY
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TO KNOW
Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Reserve is the world's northernmost
medieval monument of Muslim architecture, the unique and the only model of the Bolgar-Tatar architecture of the mid XIII-XIV centuries. It has no analogues in the world as a valuable historical monument, testifying about the missing states (Volga Bolgar, the Golden Horde), a vanished culture, way of life and how it made a significant impact during the X-XV centuries on the development of culture and architecture.
In 920, the Arab geographer al-Balkhi mentioned The Great Bolgar for the first time.
Abu Zaid Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi
A Muslim scholar and lexicographer: a mathematician, astronomer, doctor, best known as a geographer
The cultural landscape is maintained unchanged for a millennium. The Jerusalem ravine existed since pre-Mongol period. The Bolgar settlement preserves to date its border fortifications in the form of a shaft and a moat. The boundary of the village, which was founded in the XVIII century, remains unchanged to this day.
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Today, at the regular meeting of the 38th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO, which is taking place these days in Doha (capital of Qatar) and chaired by Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, it is decided to include the Bolgar historical and archaeological complex in the List of World heritage.
Press Service of the President
of the republic of Tatarstan
23.06.2014
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TO SEE
Since 2010, at the initiative and under the patronage of the first President of Tatarstan M.Sh. Shaimiev a large-scale implementation of the revival of the National Endowment for historical and cultural monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan is being conducted in Bolgar, which is aimed at the restoration and renovation of historical sites of the Republic of Tatarstan and the construction of new cultural facilities and infrastructure.
The construction of the Cathedral mosque was started shortly after the Mongol conquest, and was finished, according to the archaeological data, in 60-th years of the XIII century. The mosque was one of the main buildings of the city and had to show the power of the state, the greatness of Islam, and had to amaze foreigners by its size and beauty.
To the north wall of the mosque adjoins a projection – the foundation of Big minaret, the image of which is preserved in old pictures and drawings.
«The best of these towers or Mizgir was made of hewn stones over 12 yards. You can enter it by steep stairs with 72 steps, each of which is a Parisian foot high. This staircase was repaired and the tower was closed by the wooden roof.»
P.S. Pallas
1769
On the opposite of the main entrance of the northern facade of the Cathedral mosque in 30 years of the XIV century the Northern mausoleum was built which is known in the literature as "monastic cellar" because it was used by Dormition Monastery for food storage.
To the east of the Cathedral mosque is the Eastern mausoleum. Like other monuments of Bolgar it has a unique history. Eastern Mausoleum is the tomb of the Bolgar aristocracy.
In the second half of the XIV century the minaret was built, which, unlike the Big of the Cathedral mosque was named Small, it was placed according to tradition on the burial place of "holy Bolgars." The minaret is a part of the plurality of the surrounding shrines, cemeteries, commemorative mosques.
Black House is the best preserved monument of Bolgar architecture. There is a poetic legend which explains its name.
«During the defeat of the city of Bulgar by Aksak-Timur, Abdullah Khan with his family and close people took refuge in this building. Conquerors by the order of the terrible Emir besieged the building by the tree and set fire. All were supposed to die in the fire and smoke, but when the smoke cleared away, the enemy saw a girl in white on the roof of the building. She was the daughter of the Khan. Aksak Timur was surprised by her boldness and beauty and asked her to be his wife. She refused. Then the enraged Emir ordered to bring two of her brothers who had been sentenced to death. When she saw her brothers with pads on their necks, she turned pale and shouted to the conqueror, that she agreed to marry him if he let her brothers go before her eyes and give them best horses. So she saved the life of her brothers, and threw herself on the still- smoldering logs and died. The building is left blackened by fire»
The Captain well, named after the explorer of this territory in XVIII century N.P. Rychkov is located at the mouth of the Jerusalem ravine.

Local people call the well "Gabdrakhman sahabe koesi" and relate it with the name of one of the followers of the Prophet Muhammad.

According to legends the well originated from the contact of the stick of Gabdrakhman with the ground, and healing water helped to cure the daughter of Khan. After this event, Khan and his people converted to Islam.
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HOW TO GET THERE
The city of Bolgar is situated in the Republic of Tatarstan, 200 kilometers south of Kazan. Book a guide in advance by calling the tour department by phone
8 (84347) 39 14 or leave the application on the official website of Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Reserve.
The museum is open daily from 8.00 to 18.00 without days off and lunch break.

It is possible to get from Kazan to Bolgar by bus which departs from the bus station "South" of the city of Kazan daily at 10.00 and 17.45.
Buses from Bolgar to Kazan depart every day at 6.00 and 14.00.
The journey takes 2.5 hours.
You can specify the bus schedule and cost of travel by calling the bus station "South" for more information -
(843) 261 57 07
In the navigation period in Bolgar, voyages of high-speed ship "Meteor" are performed. The ship departs daily from the river port of Kazan and goes to the river port of the Bolgar museum-reserve and back.
For guests who arrive by the "Meteor" booking of a guide is not required.

from open sources: ru.wikipedia.org, www.bolgar.info, великий-болгар.рф
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